o 60-x . XX ea y opaox cce a poca: aooa opaoa apoco, xpaee ace, yxaepc ye pya epoa opaoa ax (electronic data processing - EDP). oe, c c oee oe ypaeecx opaox cce (management information systems-- MIS), a oaea y, apaea a oeceee eeepo eoxo p ypaeecx pee oea, cocae a ocoe copax o poecce ax (information reporting systems).

70-x cao oeo, o eco aae op peyao cce ooo oeo e oea peoa eeepo. oa oac oe cce oep p pee (decision support systems - DDS). cce o oece eeepo ceapoao epao oepo poecco p yax pee poe peao, cpoeec pe.

80-x pae ooc (cpoec) po-, aeo pax popa eeoyaox cee ao oo oe eoea oeoo ooae (end user computing). oo oea oee ooae (eeep) oy oooc caocoeo cooa cee pecypc pee aa, cax c x poeccoao eeoc, e ac o ocpeeca ceapoax opaox cy.

oae oo, o oco eeepo ceo ypo e coy eocpeceo peya pao cce ooo oeo cce oep p pee, oac oe (executive information systems - EIS). cce o oecea cee pyooco eo ao x opae, peyeceo o ee pe, oe, oa o eoxoo opae, oop o peoa.

py ocee o coae peee cce eoo cycceoo eea (artifical intellegence - AI) opaox cceax. cepe cce (expert systems - ES) cce a a (knowledge-based systems) opee oy po opaox cce. eo o oy oece eeepo aece peoea ceapoax oacx.

oac 1980 . pooaa paac 90-e oe cpaeeco po opaox cce, oa aaex cpaeec opao ccea (strategic information systems - SIS). oaco o oe opaoe cce eep e poco cpye, oecea opaoy opa oex ooaee yp p. eep o caoc eepaopo, ocoa a opa, ox ex ycyax, oope o oece pe oypeoe peyeco a pe.

poocee opaoe cce a ce aeop cce opao paa (transaction processing systems - TPS). ce opao paa ocyec pecpa ax o poecce. e pep - opaoe cce, oope pecppy poa, ay, ee coco. eya ao pecpa coyc ooe a ax o eax, eape pyx opaaox a ax. ce opao paa ae poo opa ypeeo eeo cooa. apep, o ooaa a eo, aee eooc, oape e, aooe acoe oe. ce opao paa opaaa ae y oco y. p aeo opaoe ae o oepax aaac eee eoopoo epoa pee epoec opaaac. peao acae pee ( epao) ae opaaac eeeo oce oo, a oepa pocxo. apep, y pecpa poa (point of sail - POS), pee p pox poaax, oe cooa epoe epa, cpye epeae oepece ae a peoae oepe ep peao acae pee aea.

ce ypae poecco pa pocee pee, eoxoe ypae poecca pooca. oocc aeop opaox cce, aax ccea ypae poecco (process control systems - PCS), oope aoaec pa pee, peypye ec poecc pooca. apep, eeepepaaae ao aoapoae cop coy ae cce. opopy ece poecc, opaaa ae, copae aa, poo ypaee poecco peao acae pee.

e oa y poocex opaox cce - peopaoae paox pyx eoo pao oca yaoo oyeooopoa. ce aoaa eopooca (office automation systems - OAS) copa, opaaa, xpa epea opa ope epox oyeo. aoapoae cce coy cce opao eca, epea ax pye opaoe exoo oe eoc pao oca. apep, ooo cooae ecox poeccopo opao oppecoe, epoo o, oea epo cooe, acoe aece cce coyc ooe opaox eee oa, a oooc eeoepe - poee epox cpe.

opaoe cce, peaaee oecee eeepo opae oep p ex pee, aac ypaeec opao ccea (management information systems - MIS).

aoee a ac p ocox a ypaeecx opaox cce: cce eepa oeo, cce oep p pee, cce oep p cpaeecx pee.

ce eepa oeo (information reporting systems - IRS) - aoee pacpocpaea opa ypaeecx opaox cce. oecea ypaeecx oex ooaee opae, oopa eoxoa yoeope x eeex opeoce p p pee. poo oop pae oeo, opaooe coepae oopx opeeeo apaee ca eeepa a, o x a oo eoxoa x opa. ce eepa oeo pa eoxoy opa o poeccax yp p a ax, oooex pooce opao ccea, opa o opye ex coo.

eya pao cce eepa oeo oy peocac eeepy o peoa, epoec c c a-o coe.

ce oep p pee (decision support systems - DSS) - ececeoe pae cce eepa oeo cce opao paa. ce oep p pee - epae oepe opaoe cce, oope coy oe pee ceapoae a ax oo eeepa p ypaeecx pee. a opao, o oac o cce opao paa, oope peaae copa cxox ax. ae oac o cce eepa oeo, oope cocpeooac a oecee eeepo ceeco opae.

eco oo cce oep p pee oecea ypaeecx oex ooaee opae epao pee oo o peoa. DSS peoca eeepa oooc aaecoo oepoa, e cpye oca eoxox ax, oaco op paoopaoo pecae opa. eeep e eo c opae, eoxoo p eee cpyyppoax pee epao pee. apep, epoe a pye popaoo oecee oep p pee oo eeepy aa p opoco "o ec?" oy epae oe a x.

a opao, opa, oyea c oo DSS, oaec o apaee copypoax op oeo, oyaex o cce eepa oeo. p cooa DSS eeep ccey ooe aepa oya poy opa, ocoay a aopax aepax peooe. eoaeo, eeepa e eoxooc opee co opaoe opeoc apaee. ae, DSS epao pee ooa a opa, oopo o yac.

ce oep p cpaeecx pee (executive information systems - EIS) - ypaeece opaoe cce, pcocoee cpaeec opao opeoc ceo pyooca. cee pyooco oyae opa, oopo oo yaec ox coo, a ca, ac, epoece a oa, oooee pyy oep ccea. pye co cpaeeco opa - cpe, eeoe o, oecea eeoc. a opao, oa ac opa cxo eoepx coo.

e oepx cce oep p cpaeecx pee coco o, o oece cee pyooco eocpece coo ocyo opa ooceo ex aopo, xc pec p peaa cpaeecx ee p. eoaeo, EIS o poc cyaa oa. oecea ocy oecy ypex ex a ax, ao coy paecoe pecaee ax.

pye coco acca opaox cce oecea oee yy poy acca, e e, oope ye yoy. ooy o opaoe cce oy pec: oep pooca ypae.

a epee poe pa opaox cce axoc oce oac cycceoo eea (artifical intelligence - AI). cycce ee - oac opa, e e ec papaoa cce, oope coy ya, a ae e, ca, paoapa ycoa. apep, I-poe, ae papaoy ececex epeco oepa, ycop pae ycpax pooo payoe popaoe oeceee. a oo oy - pae y oepa, oo cax c eoeec eeo, a paccye, ye pee aa.

a aoee paecx pax popa: AI - pae cepx cce (expert systems - ES). cepa ccea - ocoaa a ax opaoa ccea; o ec oa coye a opeeeo oac oo, o ecoa a o ocya. ooe cepo cce - a a oy popaoo oecee, oope o oece o a ae exc a peaa oe a opoc ooaee. cepe cce coyc o ox oacx eeoc, a ey, poepoae, ece ay ec. apep, cepe cce eep ooa aocpoa oe, ca oee coaee, aapoa coca, peoeoa peo poo acooe apoae.

ce oeoo ooae (end user computer systems) - oepe opaoe cce, oope eocpeceo oepa a oepae, a ypaeece y oex ooaee. o peca oeoo ooae a eocpeceo coyeo opaoe pecypc eco oceoo x cooa, p oo poeccoax pecypco oea opaox cy opaa. oee ooae opaox cce, a pao, coy aoapoae paoe eca ae pax popa oep coe oceeo eeoc, ao, a oc opa, oep p pee papao poe.

ao oa, o opaoe cce eocpeceo oepa paec ce ace ypaeeco eeoc ax yoax oacx, a yxaepc ye, ac, ypaee pyo pecypca, ape ypaee pooco.

opaoe cce peao pe oo c oa ecox o opaox cce, oope oo o yoy, ooy o oeyae acca opaox cce papaoa oo, o oepy pae po opaox cce. paec po eppoa coe aocae opaoe cce, oope oecea p y. a opao, oco opaox cce coao oecee opae oep p pee a pax ypox ypae pax yoax oacx.



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